At the dawn of independence in much of Africa in the 1960s, various African political ideologies emerged. Among these were those of Tanzania’s Julius Nyerere and Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah. In his Ujamaa, Nyerere set as his ideal a society with neither need nor inclination to exploit citizens. It was to be an African socialism that was proudly self-reliant and as a norm, collaboration and development based on the idea of African familyhood. Nkrumah, on the other hand, proposed as an ideal, a Pan-African state made possible by continental political and economic unification. This unified structure was to provide a force of anti-imperialism and a safeguard for Africa’s political and economic integration. The dreams of these men (and other “Fathers” of African independence) were directed at ensuring the survival of the emerging African nation-states, and ultimately, of the continent.Read more about Call for Papers Chiedza Vol 20 No 1. Cultural Survival of Africa
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